I found this a quite difficult book, often with very long, jargon-filled sentences that were difficult, for me, to understand. Nevertheless, it gave me a better idea of what biosemiotics, a relatively new field, is all about (though everyone knows that animals, including ourselves supremely, communicate by signs). What Wheeler sets out to do is to explain that culture is part of human evolution and that Cartesian dualism, scientific reductionism and individualism, though very productive in many fields, can also be inhibiting and damaging to human creativity and sociality. “No man is an island” etc.
The book reinforces the fact that their are two scientific schools of thought in the field of evolution, one that argues that the mechanisms of evolution by natural selection and adaptation are well-understood and, as it were, tell the whole story and can provide an explanation for the characteristic of any species, and another that argues that Darwin's ideas, though very brilliant, are only part of a theory and there is still a great deal that we do not understand about the way species have come to be as they are.
The mainstream evolutionary scientists, if I can call the first group that, seem to be inordinately scared of the supporters of creationism, intelligent design and other theories that claim supernatural causes for the diversity of life and the wonders of the universe. However, constantly to be attacking these people seems to me to be a distraction that can all too easily to drift into an assault on one or another aspect of religion, selectively reporting the worst they can find and using this as an argument for condemning any kind of spiritual manifestation. As Shakespeare wrote in Hamlet "the lady doth protest too much, methinks."
However, here are a few passages from Wheeler's book I thought interesting:
Page 29: Reductionism has expanded enormously our knowledge of biology, and, as in the science of genetic modification, our ability to interfere with biological life, but it is still the case that absolutely no-one understands with any precision how the complex life of the cell uses DNA and mRNA to ‘tell’ some cells to turn into, say, the liver, and others to turn into the heart or the skin.
Page 81: Politics, itself, is not to be progressed by ignoring the affective intimations of the millions of our fellow beings who find both solace and joy in the appearance of order in the universe, who express this in forms of sacred belief or the wish that natural environments be preserved for solace as well as sense, or who insist that life, in all its forms, is valuable in and of itself.
Page 147: .... creativity doesn’t seem to come to us by consciousness and memory alone. Curiosity and openness means that we have to remain receptive; and very often this means that we seem to have to hang around, being diligently indolent, or reading books, or doing the washing up, or going for a walk, or getting on a bus, or falling asleep, while some other process goes on of which we are quite unconscious.